More Than Ethnicity Behind Fiji’s Unrest

More Than Ethnicity Behind Fiji’s Unrest

At the Census the ethnic Fijian population was , 46 per cent of the total and the Indo-Fijian population was , 48 per cent , maintaining the numerical dominance of the Indo-Fijian population that was established after the Second World War. However, by , after extensive emigration, the Indo-Fijian population had fallen absolutely and was just 38 per cent of the total whereas the Fijian population had grown to 45 per cent. The and coups have seen ongoing emigration of skilled trades and professional personnel, most of whom are Indo-Fijian, to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. According to the latest census in , while the ethnic Fijian population increased to , Indo- Fijians comprise the second largest ethnic group and are culturally and economically diverse. More than 90 per cent are descendants of indentured labourers Girmityas and the remainder are descendants of free migrants. The majority are Hindu, and a minority are Muslim or Christian. A small number of Indo-Fijians can be defined as wealthy or engaged in business enterprises, but the majority of Indo-Fijians are workers and peasant farmers, and also include the poorest of the poor in the country. Indo-Fijian tenant farmers rely on leased agricultural land and since many of these leases have not been renewed, or are on the point of expiring, resulting in the lease-holders being displaced.

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Between and Fiji experienced four coups in which Governments were overthrown by their military forces or parts of it. After the fourth coup in December old metropolitan friends such as Australia, New Zealand, the USA and the EU responded with travel sanctions, cancellation of military cooperation and frozen development assistance. When Fiji was politically isolated it fostered secondary political friendships of olden days and established new ones.

To understand IR in the context of Fiji and India it is essential to look at both countries, their interests and agency.

both genders of Indo-Fijian and Fijians feel to perform and uphold tradition in find a conflict with tradition and their urge for a more western style of dating and.

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The nonelected interim government appointed after the release of the hostages has now been declared unconstitutional, the man who was declared the legitimate president has resigned, and the country waits while the courts determine whether to dissolve parliament and conduct new general elections. The interim government includes no officials from the deposed government, which seeks reinstatement. But a fuller understanding of the recent instability in Fiji requires analysis of its demographic, economic, and political complexities.

The problem with many Pacific Islands states is not so much that they are prone to falling apart, but rather that they were never fully put together.

The ‘Old Indo-Fijian Diaspora,’ of the indentured labourers who came to Fiji between women of the Bollywood films from the ‘black and white’ period till to-​date.

The Fiji Population Live counter shows a continuously updated estimate of the current population of Fiji delivered by Worldometer’s RTS algorithm , which processes data collected from the United Nations Population Division. The Population of Fiji – chart plots the total population count as of July 1 of each year, from to Population : Overall total population both sexes and all ages in the country as of July 1 of the year indicated, as estimated by the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

World Population Prospects: The Revision. For forecasted years, the U. For all other years: latest year annual percentage change equivalent assuming homogeneous change in the preceding five year period, calculated through reverse compounding. Yearly Change : For absolute change in total population increase or decrease in number of people over the last year from July 1, to June 30 For all other years: average annual numerical change over the preceding five year period.

Migrants net : The average annual number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants over the preceding five year period running from July 1 to June 30 of the initial and final years , or subsequent five year period for data. A negative number means that there are more emigrants than immigrants. Median Age : age that divides the population into two numerically equal groups: half of the people are older than the median age indicated and half are younger. This parameter provides an indication of age distribution.

It is calculated as the average number of children an average woman will have during her reproductive period 15 to 49 years old based on the current fertility rates of every age group in the country, and assuming she is not subject to mortality. Urban Population : Population living in areas classified as urban according to the criteria used by each country.

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Most Indo-Fijians are the descendants of indentured laborers brought to Fiji during the nineteenth century by the British. In the system of indentured labor, workers who had been moved to a new country against their will were forced to perform a job for little or no pay until they earned enough money to buy their freedom. The system was created to provide cheap workers for British colonies after the abolition of slavery in Britain and its colonies in The first indentured laborers from India arrived in Fiji in and the indenture system lasted until Other immigrants from India arrived in Fiji in the early twentieth century, and they opened small shops in the coastal towns.

The Fijian archipelago string of islands is located in the western Pacific Ocean.

% Indo-Fijian, and % of other ethnicity; % rural dwellers) included all 8 dated for both Melanesian and Indian Fijians, separately by gender.

Since their arrival in the British colony as sugar plantation labourers, Indo-Fijian activists led counter hegemonic movements against the colonial government during and after indenture in , and Indo-Fijian activists demanded political equality with Europeans and constantly agitated for better wages and living conditions through disruptive strikes and boycotts.

After independence, the focus of Indo-Fijians shifted to political equality with indigenous Fijians and access to land leases from indigenous landowners on reasonable terms; and these were ongoing themes in the , and elections. However, Indo-Fijian counter hegemony took a new form in with the formation of the multiracial Fiji Labour Party and National Federation Party coalition government but indigenous Fijian nationalists and the military deposed the government and established discriminatory policies against Indo-Fijians which were dismantled by the Fiji Labour Party-led coalition government in However, indigenous nationalists regrouped and deposed the government in , prompting another round of protests and resistance from Indo-Fijians.

Using Gramscian conceptualisation of counter hegemony as disruptive protest, resistance and dissent, I argue that political mobilisation of indentured labourers and their descendants was aimed at restoring political rights, honour, self-respect and dignity lost during colonial and post-colonial periods in Fiji. In this article, I argue that Indo-Fijian counter hegemony was in the form of mobilisation, based on assembling alternative ideas to create a culture of disruptive protests and rebellion against hegemonic social forces.

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Population of Fiji: current, historical, and projected population, growth rate, immigration, median age, total fertility rate (TFR), population density, urbanization​.

The term “Fijians” refers to any of the inhabitants of the chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean called the Republic of Fiji. The islands claimed independence from Great Britain in but remained part of the Commonwealth until October , when they became the Republic of Fiji. Although there are a great number of ethnic groups indigenous to the Fiji Islands, they all share a number of cultural traits. Here the term “Fijian” is used to refer to the descendants of the indigenous population of this chain of islands.

The Fijian word Taukei is now being used to refer to this group as opposed to other ethnic groups that inhabit the islands. In Fijian the word translates as “owner” or “original inhabitant. The Fijian archipelago lies in the western Pacific Ocean , southwest of Hawaii. There are more than islands within the Fijian group, the two largest being Viti Levu and Vanua Levu.

Indo-Fijian people.

They were from all parts of India, especially from Gujarat and the Bhojpuri regions of modern-day India and Nepal , with other large numbers coming from Sindh and the Tamil and Telugu regions of the Madras Presidency. They were brought to the islands as indentured servants by Fiji’s British colonial rulers between and to work on Fiji’s sugar cane plantations.

Indians had been employed for a long time on the European ships trading in India and the East Indies.

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And from there the journey started, eventually developing into a new cultural and ethnic evolution of the Indo-Fijians. Viti Levu, one the largest island in the group of Fijian archipelago, consists of the largest Indo-Fijian settlement. The group which once used to cover about 48 per cent of the population now have fall by a margin of 3 per cent after the military coup of To trace the cause, we should start with the Fijian law which had back in the days of Colonists stated that there should be an avoidance of inter-mingling between the Fijian and the Indian communities.

Thus, as ordained, the Indo-Fijians mostly inhabited the coastal towns of the islands and opened small shops and projected themselves towards the sugar-cane industry. Though a minority, they soon managed to gain the economical control of the states in their own hands. The situation was annoying to the Fijians, particularly when it came down to the sugar-cane business, a major cash crop of the regime. The migration severely affected the Fijian society resulting in the loss of the one-third of academicians, lawyers and other professionals.

Though, the situation between the communities has relative cooled down a bit from onwards, still much mixing between them is not expected especially if it comes to forming a romantic relations, e. Though, the irony is that dating someone from the European community is not faced with hindrances at all.

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Terry, Michael. Two Indo-Fijian women dressed in saris, Fiji, : ,. Citations are automatically generated and may require some modification to conform to exact standards. You may save or print this image for research and study. If you wish to use it for any other purpose, please visit Using the Pictures Collection.

Though, the irony is that dating someone from the European community is not faced with hindrances at all. The Culture. Language, attire and.

Fiji in detail. Fiji has been an important Pacific crossroads over the centuries, and its culture reflects the manifold influences that have touched the nation. Indigenous island culture, based on the communal values of the village still holds sway, rubbing up against sometimes with friction the Indian culture brought by indentured labourers, and the influences of Western colonialists in everything from Christianity to rugby. Since Fijian independence, there have frequently been tensions between Fiji’s two main communities — those of island descent and those from the Indian communities who settled in the islands in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

These tensions have spilled over into disputes over who holds political power and whether all communities are equal in the eyes of the law. Until , Fiji was divided into ‘indigenous Fijians’ and ‘Indo-Fijians’, with only the former officially allowed to call themselves Fijian. Under current law, all citizens are finally now referred to as being Fijian, with the appellation iTaukei used to refer to members of the original native community.

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